Victoria Road School

A caring community where learners rise to the challenge

Learn Maths with Victoria Road!

Across the school, we use a range of methods to complete maths challenges and problems. A big focus this year has been on following the principal of:



Concrete is the “doing” stage. During this stage, students use concrete objects to model problems. Unlike traditional maths teaching methods where teachers demonstrate how to solve a problem, this approach brings concepts to life by allowing children to experience and handle physical (concrete) objects.

For example, if a problem involves adding pieces of fruit, children can first handle actual fruit. From there, they can progress to handling abstract counters or cubes which represent the fruit.


Pictorial is the “seeing” stage. Here, visual representations of concrete objects are used to model problems. This stage encourages children to make a mental connection between the physical object they just handled and the abstract pictures, diagrams or models that represent the objects from the problem.

Building or drawing a model makes it easier for children to grasp difficult abstract concepts (for example, fractions). Simply put, it helps students visualise abstract problems and make them more accessible.


Abstract is the “symbolic” stage, where children use abstract symbols to model problems. Students should not progress to this stage until they have demonstrated that they have a solid understanding of the concrete and pictorial stages of the problem.

The abstract stage involves the teacher introducing abstract concepts (for example, mathematical symbols). Children are introduced to the concept at a symbolic level, using only numbers, notation, and mathematical symbols (for example, +, –, x, /) to indicate addition, multiplication or division.

Presentation from Maths evening for parents 10.10.19

Online Manipulatives:

Base ten blocks - and

Place Value counters -

Numicon -

Tens Frame -

Websites for Maths games:…

Home Learning Ideas -

Examples of Reasoning and Problem Solving






In order to help with this process, our teachers have kindly produced a range of videos that show the methods that your child uses in school in order to complete a range of topics.

Below are some videos that aim to help you understand the methods and processes we use, also incorporating the concrete, pictorial and abstract stages.

Year 2/3 - Column Addition